Chapter 54 
Defeat of Ammonites [Judges 11.29-11.33]

Scripture: Judges 11.29-11.33(KJV)

His vow and his conquest of the Ammonites

29 Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead, and Manasseh, and passed over Mizpeh of Gilead, and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed over unto the children of Ammon.
30 And Jephthah vowed a vow unto the LORD, and said, If thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hands,
31 Then it shall be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the LORD'S, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering.
32 So Jephthah passed over unto the children of Ammon to fight against them; and the LORD delivered them into his hands.
33 And he smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards, with a very great slaughter. Thus the children of Ammon were subdued before the children of Israel.


Jephthah doesn’t want to go to war against the Ammonites, but the king of Ammon totally rejects the paper that Jephthah apparently had sent to him. He said he would not accept what it said. So Jephthah leads his army against the Ammonites. But when he passes through the land and gets a look at the enemy, he becomes a little fearful. Now he does something that under normal circumstances he probably would not have done. Remember that this man had spent years in exile and then suddenly he is exalted to the highest position in the land; he is made a judge. The natural reaction of a man who is suddenly elevated is excitement. In his excitement he makes a rash promise. Also remember that Jephthah did not have the light that we have today. He was one-half pagan with a heathen background. He did know God but not very well. God did not require him to make a vow.

The Vow

29 Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead, and Manasseh, and passed over Mizpeh of Gilead, and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed over unto the children of Ammon.—Judges 11:29(KJV)
29 Then the spirit of the Lord came on Jephthah, and he went through Gilead and Manasseh, and came to Mizpeh of Gilead; and from Mizpeh of Gilead he went over to the children of Ammon.--Judges 11:29(BBE)

Then the Spirit of the Lord came upon Jephthah…
The spirit of strength, that is, the spirit of strength and zeal, as described in the Targum (see Article 11.10, below); of fortitude of mind, of uncommon valor and courage, and of zeal for God and Israel, and against their enemies. Such a spirit used to be given to men, when they were raised up by the Lord in a remarkable manner, to be judges, saviors, and deliverers of His people. Jephthah was chosen by the people to be the general and head of the tribes living beyond the Jordan River, but now he was raised up and qualified by the Lord to be the judge of all Israel. When the Spirit of the Lord comes upon him, it was sufficient proof and evidence that God had picked him for the Judge of all Israel. It was also convincing testimony that their cause was good, and that the Lord had sanctified (see Table 20, below) and qualified him for the work He had called him to do. The calm wisdom, perceptive forethought, and indomitable energy which he was enabled to display, were a pledge to himself and convincing evidence to his countrymen, that he was qualified by higher resources than his own for the momentous duties of his office. Thus, Jephthah entered the lists of the great charismatic leaders of Israel. This made all the difference. With Jephthah led by God's Spirit, the victory of Israel was assured.

Table 20: Compare Judges 11.29, 6.34, 13.25   
Compare Judges 11.29,  Judges 6.34, and  Judges13.25

Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead, and Manasseh, and passed over Mizpeh of Gilead, and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed over unto the children of Ammon.—Judges 11:29(KJV) Note: This declaration is one of the distinctive marks which stamp this history as a divine history.

But the Spirit of the LORD came upon Gideon, and he blew a trumpet; and Abiezer was gathered after him.—Judges 6:34 (KJV)

And the Spirit of the LORD began to move him at times in the camp of Dan between Zorah and Eshtaol.—Judges 13:25 (KJV)

Jephthah's victory was clear (see verses 32 and 33), and it shines very brightly, both to his honor and to the honor of God, his in pleading and God's in owning a righteous cause. God gave him an excellent spirit, and he bravely improved it. It appeared, by the people's unanimous choice of him for their leader that he had a legitimate mandate to go to war, if necessary, against Israel’s enemies. War with the Ammonites could not be avoided, because of the obstinate deafness of the king of Ammon to the accommodating proposals that he had made to the King. Then the Spirit of the Lord came upon Jephthah, and greatly advanced his natural faculties, endowing him with power from on high, and making him bolder and wiser than he had ever been, and more fired with a holy zeal against the enemies of his people. It was by this means that God confirmed him in his office, and assured him of success in his undertaking. With the Lord’s encouragement still fresh in his mind, he loses no time taking the field. Particular notice will be taken of the way in which he advanced towards the enemy's camp, probably because the strategy was his; another instance of that extraordinary discretion with which the Spirit of the Lord had furnished him; for those who sincerely walk after the Spirit shall be led forth the right way. 

The purpose of the Spirit of the Lord coming upon Jephthah was to provide divine enablement in his military leadership against the pagan oppressors the Lord had been using to chasten His people. Sampson was another one that had the Spirit of the Lord come upon him: “When he came to Lehi, the Philistines came shouting against him. Then the Spirit of the LORD came mightily upon him; and the ropes that were on his arms became like flax that is burned with fire, and his bonds broke loose from his hands” (Judges 15:14; NKJV). The presence of the Holy Spirit with OT leaders was primarily for the purpose of accomplishing services for God, not specifically for holy living. Thus the presence of the Spirit of the Lord with Jephthah was not necessarily related to his vow or its fulfillment, (see vs. 30 and 31)                                                                                                                    
and he passed over Gilead and Manasseh;
the countries that belonged to Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, which lay to the north of the land of Gilead, or tribe of Gad —the provinces most exposed and in danger. As Yates noted, "Jephthah here made a series of journeys," and the implication is clear enough that Jephthah did so under the direction of the Spirit of God. He passed through Gilead (the land of the tribes of Reuben and Gad between the Arnon and the Jabbok) and Manasseh (northern Gilead and Bashan, which the half tribe of Manasseh had received for a possession).  We are not told exactly what the purpose of those trips was, but, in all likelihood, it was to enlist as many as possible in the army with which Jephthah would meet the foe.

and passed over Mizpeh of Gilead;
Mizpeh of Gilead
- So called to distinguish it from other cities of the same name.
Having gathered what forces he could, he came close to the borders of the Ammonites. And then, he went with the newly assembled army to Mizpeh-Gilead, i.e., Ramoth-mizpeh, where the Israelites had already encamped before his call, [1(Judges 10:17).

and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed over to the children of Ammon;
Jephthah and his newly raised army did not stay for long in Mizpeh of Gilead, because he didn’t want the battle to take place in the land of Gilead, so, he prevented it by moving his forces into the land of the children of Ammon. It seems by this, that though the children of Ammon had encamped in Gilead some time before, [1](Judges 10:17), yet for some reason or another they had moved their camp into their own country, while continuing to threatening Israel with a war, and preparing for it.

The geography is rather obscure, but it seems to be that Jephthah first enlisted into the army all the inhabitants of Mount Gilead; then he crossed the Jabbok into Manasseh, and enlisted them; then he returned at the head of his new forces to his own camp at Mizpeh to join the troops he had left there; and then, at the head of the whole army, marched against the Ammonites, who occupied the southern parts of Gilead.

The source of Jephthah's courage was that he was filled with the Spirit of the Lord; when we are beset by fears and anxieties, we need to fill our lives with Jesus and be filled with the Holy Spirit.

Article 11.10: Targum
           The Aramaic translation of the Bible. It forms a part of the Jewish traditional literature, and its inception is as early as the time of the Second Temple. The use of the term "Targum" by itself was restricted to the Aramaic version of the Bible (see Bacher, "Die Terminologie der Tannaiten," pp. 205 et seq.). In like manner, the Aramaic passages in Genesis, Jeremiah, Daniel, and Ezra were briefly called "Targum," while the Hebrew text was called "Miḳra" (see Yad. iv. 5; Shab. 115b).
           As an interpretation of the Hebrew text of the Bible the Targum had its place both in the synagogal liturgy and in Biblical instruction, while the reading of the Bible text combined with the Targum in the presence of the congregation assembled for public worship was an ancient institution which dated from the time of the Second Temple, and was traced back to Ezra by Rab when he interpreted the word "meforash" (Neh. viii. 8) as referring to the Targum (Meg. 3a; Ned. 37b; comp. Yer. Meg. 74d, line 48, Gen. R. xxxvi., end). The rules for reading the Targum are formulated in the Halakah (see Meg. iii. and the Talmud ad loc.; Tosef., Meg. iv.). The Targum was to be read after every verse of the parashiyyot of the Pentateuch, and after every third verse of the lesson from the Prophets. Excepting the Scroll of Esther, which might be read by two persons in turn, only one person might read the Targum, as the Pentateuch or prophetic section also was read by a single person. Even a minor might read the Targum, although it was not fitting for him to do so when an adult had read the text. Certain portions of the Bible, although read, were not translated (as Gen. xxxv. 22), while others were neither read nor translated (as Num. vi. 24-26; II Sam. xi.-xiii.). The reader was forbidden to prompt the translator, lest anyone should say that the Targum was included in the text of the Bible (Ulla in Meg. 32a). With regard to the translation of Biblical passages, Judah ben Ilai, the pupil of Akiba, declared that whosoever rendered a verse of the Bible in its original form was a liar, while he who made additions was a blasphemer (Tosef., Meg., end; Ḳid. 49a; comp. the geonic responsum in Harkavy, "Responsen der Geonim," pp. 124 et seq., and the quotation from Midr. ha-Gadol in "J. Q. R." vi. 425). A passage in Ab. R. N. (Recension B, xii. [ed. Schechter, p. 24]) referring to R. Akiba's early training says that he studied the Bible and the Targum; but allusions to the Targum as a special subject of study in connection with the Bible are excessively rare. It must be assumed, however, that the Targum was an integral part of the Biblical course of study designated as "Miḳra"; and Judah b. Ilai declared that only he who could read and translate the Bible might be regarded as a "ḳaryana," or one thoroughly versed in the Bible (Ḳid. 49a). In Sifre, Deut. 161 the Targum is mentioned as a branch of study intermediate between the Miḳra and the Mishnah.
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  _________________________________verse 29 notes______________________

[1](Judges 10:17; NKJV) “Then the people of Ammon gathered together and encamped in Gilead. And the children of Israel assembled together and encamped in Mizpah.” Literally, they cried against Israel—they sent out criers in different directions to stir up all the enemies of Israel; and when they had made a mighty collection, they encamped in Gilead.—Adam Clarke's Commentary


30 And Jephthah vowed a vow unto the LORD, and said, If thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hands,—Judges 11:30(KJV)
30 And Jephthah took an oath to the Lord, and said, If you will give the children of Ammon into my hands,—Judges 11.30 (BBE)
And Jephthah vowed a vow unto the Lord…
Before he set out for the land of the children of Ammon, and to fight with them he made a *vow; hoping that such a religious performance would be appreciated by the Lord, and that he would be blessed with success in his enterprise: He was assured that his cause was just and that his call to lead Israel was from God, and God had given Jephthah every assurance that he would be victorious, and yet, he seems to have some hesitancy in his mind about the success of it; at least, he was not fully certain of it. This man did not need to make a rash vow like this, because God had not put the victory on that basis. It was the hand of God that had elevated him to this high position. He should have recognized that, since God had brought him that far, He would see him through. In verse 29 of this chapter we were told that the Spirit of the Lord came upon him. He did not need to add anything to that.

*vow: It is certainly acceptable to God for the Jews to make vows; provided they obeyed the laws He had given through Moses to govern the use of vows (Lev 27; Num 30; Deut 23.21-25). Vows were completely voluntary, but the Lord expected them to fulfill them. Jephthah’s vow was really a bargain with God. If God would give the Israelites victory over the Ammonites, Jephthah would sacrifice to the Lord whatever came out of his house when he arrived home in Mizpah. God did give him the victory and Jephthah did keep his promise.

and said, if thou shall without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hands;
This was the first part of his vow; the next part is in verse 31, and it is shocking and makes us ask “Why would he do such a thing?”

Table 21: Typical Vows  

Gen 28:20-21 (NLT) Then Jacob made this vow: “If God will indeed be with me and protect me on this journey, and if he will provide me with food and clothing, and if I return safely to my father’s home, then the LORD will certainly be my God 

1 Sam 1:11 (NLT) And she made this vow: “O LORD of Heaven’s Armies, if you will look upon my sorrow and answer my prayer and give me a son, then I will give him back to you. He will be yours for his entire lifetime, and as a sign that he has been dedicated to the LORD, his hair will never be cut.

Eccl 5:1-5 (NLT) As you enter the house of God, keep your ears open and your mouth shut. It is evil to make mindless offerings to God. Don’t make rash promises, and don’t be hasty in bringing matters before God. After all, God is in heaven, and you are here on earth. So let your words be few. Too much activity gives you restless dreams; too many words make you a fool. When you make a promise to God, don’t delay in following through, for God takes no pleasure in fools. Keep all the promises you make to him. It is better to say nothing than to make a promise and not keep it.

 Vowed a vow—A vow is a solemn, holy promise, by which a man bound himself to do certain things in a particular way, time, etc., and for power to accomplish which he depended on God; hence all vows were made  with prayer.


31 Then it shall be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the LORD'S, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering.—Judges 11:31(KJV)
31 Then whoever comes out from the door of my house, meeting me when I come back in peace from the children of Ammon, will be the Lord's and I will give him as a burned offering.—Judges 11:31 (BBE)

Then it shall be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me…
If this phrase, "to meet me", is given proper significance, then nothing could be meant by it other than a human creature; a child, or servant, or any other human being; because nothing else could come through that doorway with the objective of meeting him: but if what came out the door lacked the intellect to have planned to meet him, then any other creature may be intended; and it must also mean the first person to come through the doorway, as the Vulgate Latin version expresses it, since many in the house may come out at such a time.

Evidently the reference is not to an animal, for that might have been a dog; which, being unclean, was unfit to be offered. He must have meant a person, and it looks as if he planned for a human sacrifice, from the first. He was raised beyond the Jordan, where the Israelitish tribes, living far from the tabernacle, were looser in their religious outlook. Lately, they were living along the borders of a heathen country where such sacrifices were common; but it is not improbable that he may have been so ignorant that he imagined that a similar sacrifice would be acceptable to God. His mind was probably engrossed with the prospect of a major battle, the outcome of which the fate of his country depended, might, through the influence of superstition, consider the offering of the object dearest to him the most likely to ensure success.

when I return in peace from the children of Ammon:
When he returns home, safe and sound, and having conquered the Ammonites, and restored peace to Israel:

shall surely be the Lord's; and I will offer it up for a burnt-offering.
The text is vehayah layhovah, vehaalithihu olah; the translation of which, according to the most accurate Hebrew scholars, is this: I will consecrate it to the Lord, or I will offer it for a burnt-offering; that is, "If it is fit for a burnt-offering, it shall be made one; if fit for the service of God, it shall be consecrated to him." It is evident that conditions of this kind must have been implied in the vow; a vow made without them could only be the vow of a heathen, or a madman. If a dog had met him, it could not have been made a burnt-offering; and if his neighbor or a friend's wife, son, or daughter was visiting his family, his vow gave him no right over them. Besides, human sacrifices were an abomination to the Lord; and this was one of the reasons why God drove out the Canaanites,

We have learned, from what we have read of him that Jephthah was a deeply religious man; and that he was well acquainted with the Law of Moses, which prohibited all such sacrifices, and stated what was to be offered in sacrifice—this is evident from his discussion with the king and people of Ammon, Judges 11:14-27. Therefore, it must be concluded that he never made that rash vow which several suppose he did; nor was he capable, if he had, of executing it in that most shocking manner which some Christian writers have insisted that he did. He could not commit a crime which he must have considered himself to be a hideous act, and to be condemned by God.

It has been understood by many that "the text itself might have been read differently in former times; if instead of the words I will offer IT a burnt-offering, we read I will offer HIM (i.e., the Lord) a burnt-offering: this will give it a completely different meaning, more consistent with everything that is sacred. Now it emphasizes the person to whom the sacrifice was to be made instead of the thing to be sacrificed. With this alteration the passage will read thus: “Whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the LORD'S, and I will offer Him a burnt offering.”

"From Judges 11:39 it appears evident that Jephthah's daughter was not SACRIFICED to God, but consecrated to him in a state of perpetual virginity; for the text says, She knew no man, for this was a statute in Israel; that persons dedicated or consecrated to God, should live in a state of unchangeable celibacy. Thus this notable passage turns out to be, without violence and cleared of all difficulty, and caused to speak a language consistent with itself, and with the nature of God."
Those who say that Jephthah did sacrifice his daughter, attempt to justify that opinion from the barbarous practices of those times: but in answer to this it may be rightly observed, that Jephthah was now under the influence of the Spirit of God, Judges 11:29; and that Spirit could not permit him to stain his hands in the blood of his own child; and especially under the pretence of offering a pleasing sacrifice to that God who is the Father of mankind, and the Fountain of love, mercy, and compassion.

The various Bible versions give us much help to clear up the difficulties of the text. In the Targum of Jonathan there is a remarkable personal view which should be mentioned, and from which it will appear that the Targumist held that the daughter of Jephthah was actually sacrificed: "And he fulfilled the vow which he had vowed upon her; and she knew no man: and it was made a statute in Israel, {that no man should offer his son or his daughter for a burnt-offering, as did Jephthah the Gileadite, who did not consult Phinehas the priest; for if he had consulted Phinehas the priest, he would have redeemed her with money."}

The Targumist refers here to the law, Leviticus 27:1-5, where the Lord prescribes the price at which either males or females, who had been vowed to the Lord, might be redeemed. "When a man shall make a singular vow, the persons shall be for the Lord at thy estimation: the male from twenty years old even unto sixty, shall be fifty shekels of silver; and if it be a female, then thy estimation shall be thirty shekels; and from five years old unto twenty years, the male twenty shekels, and for the female ten." This also is an argument that the daughter of Jephthah was not sacrificed; as the father had it within his power, at a very moderate price, to have redeemed her: and surely the life of his daughter must have been of more value in his sight than thirty shekels of silver.

We can't deny that this vow is foolish none the less; the important thing is to be in the will of God yourself, not to make vows to try to get God "on your side." The writer of Hebrews commends Jephthah for his worthy enterprise of delivering the people, [2](Hebrews 11:32) so once again we have an indication that He did not sacrifice his daughter, because his rash vow and wicked performance of the same, would have defaced his victory. Here we see that the sins of the godly do not utterly extinguish their faith.

Illustration 22: Jephthah’s Vow by Gustave Doré (not available)

______________________________verse 31 notes_____________________________

[2](Hebrews 11:32; KJV) “And what shall I more say? for the time would fail me to tell of Gedeon, and of Barak, and of Samson, and of Jephthae; of David also, and Samuel, and of the prophets.” Who, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, defeated the Ammonites, and delivered Israel.


The Conquest of the Ammonites

The negotiations with the king of the Ammonites were fruitless, Jephthah had no other course left than to appeal to the sword


32 So Jephthah passed over unto the children of Ammon to fight against them; and the LORD delivered them into his hands.—Judges 11:32(KJV)
32 So Jephthah went over to the children of Ammon to make war on them; and the Lord gave them into his hands.—Judges 11:32(BBE)

So Jephthah passed over unto the children of Ammon, to fight against them…
As in Judges 11:29, he took his army to Aroer, where the army of Ammon was camped; after he had made the above vow.

and the Lord delivered them into his hands;
He met and engaged them at Aroer, a town in the tribe of Gad, upon the Arnon River. A decisive victory crowned the host of Israel, and they pursued the Ammonites from south to north, over an extent of about sixty miles to Abel (plain of the vineyards). God won a great and important victory for Israel through Jephthah; who overcame bitterness and family rejection to meet a great need. His tough past didn't make him "unusable" by God. The Lord delivered the Ammonites into his hand, and so gave judgment in favor of the righteous cause, and made those that would not yield to the force of reason feel the force of war; because he sits in the throne, judging right.



33 And he smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards, with a very great slaughter. Thus the children of Ammon were subdued before the children of Israel.—Judges 11:33(KJV)
33 And he made an attack on them from Aroer all the way to Minnith, overrunning twenty towns, as far as Abel-cheramim, and put great numbers to the sword. So the children of Ammon were crushed before the children of Israel.—Judges 11:33(BBE)

And he smote them from Aroer…
A city which lay near the river Arnon, on the border of Moab, [3](Deuteronomy 3:12), [4](Deuteronomy 2:36; NKJV). As in the conflicts with the Moabites, Canaanites, and Midianites (Judges 3; 4; 7), the battle was on Israelite territory, and in self-defense.

even till thou come to Minnith;
Minnith, the chief city of the Ammonites, but defeated by Jephthah, seems to have been a place famous for wheat, [5](Ezekiel 27:17); one David de Pomis says it was a place where the best wheat grew. Jerom says in his time he was shown a village called Mannith, four miles from Esbus (or Heshbon), as you go to Philadelphia or Rabbath, and Eusebius writes about the same city. Josephus calls it Maniathe.
even twenty cities,
Having routed their forces in the field, he pursued them to their cities, where he put to the sword all he found with weapons, so that they could no longer pose a threat to Israel. He either took or destroyed twenty cities of the Ammonites, and completely routed their whole army. But it does not appear that he utterly destroyed the people, as Joshua had destroyed the nations that occupied this territory when Israel first entered the Promised Land. However, he took care to insure that they were completely subdued.
and unto the plain of the vineyards, with a very great slaughter;
Jerom says in his time, he saw a village called Abela, planted with vineyards, seven miles from Philadelphia. The plain of the vineyards - Rather, "Abel-Ceramim" (compare Abel-Meholah), identified with an "Abel" situated among vineyards, 7 miles from Robbah.
thus the children of Ammon were subdued before the children of Israel;
so that they were not able to oppress them anymore. Thanks to the faith and courage of
Jephthah, the Ammonites didn’t threaten the Israelites for another fifty years.

_________________________verse 33 notes_________________________

[3](Deuteronomy 3:12; NKJV). “And this land, which we possessed at that time, from Aroer, which is by the River Arnon, and half the mountains of Gilead and its cities, I gave to the Reubenites and the Gadites.” The whole territory occupied by Sihon was parcelled out among the pastoral tribes of Reuben and Gad. It extended from the north bank of the Arnon to the south half of mount Gilead -- a small mountain ridge, now called Djelaad, about six or seven miles south of the Jabbok River, and eight miles in length. The northern portion of Gilead and the rich pasture lands of Bashan -- a large province, consisting, with the exception of a few bleak and rocky spots, of strong and fertile soil -- was assigned to the half-tribe of Manasseh.—Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
[4](Deuteronomy 2:36; NKJV) “From Aroer, which is on the bank of the River Arnon, and from the city that is in the ravine, as far as Gilead, there was not one city too strong for us; the LORD our God delivered all to us.” At its mouth, this stream is eighty-two feet wide and four deep. It flows in a channel banked by perpendicular cliffs of sandstone. At the date of the Israelitish migration to the east of the Jordan, the whole of the fine country lying between the Arnon and the Jabbok including the mountainous tract of Gilead, had been seized by the Amorites, who, being one of the nations doomed to destruction (see De 7:2 De 20:16), were utterly exterminated. Their country fell by right of conquest into the hands of the Israelites. Moses, however, considering this doom as referring solely to the Amorite possessions west of Jordan, sent a spacific message to Sihon, requesting permission to go through his territories, which lay on the east of that river. It is always customary to send messengers before to prepare the way; but the rejection of Moses' request by Sihon and his opposition to the advance of the Israelites (Nu 21:23 Judges 11:26) drew down on himself and his Amorite subjects the predicted doom on the first pitched battlefield with the Canaanites. It secured to Israel not only the possession of a fine and pastoral country, but, what was of more importance to them, a free access to the Jordan on the east.—Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
[5](Ezekiel 27:17; NKJV) “Judah and the land of Israel were your traders. They traded for your merchandise wheat of Minnith, millet, honey, oil, and balm.” Minnith . . .name of a city in Israel famed for good wheat, wherewith Tyre was supplied (1Ki 5:9, 11 Ezr 3:7 Ac 12:20); Minnith was formerly an Ammonite city (Judges 11:33).

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